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Egypt General Information
Egypt doesn't need an introduction. It was the introduction to human civilisation itself, and has all the evidence to show for it.
Tour Egypt from the live Nile Valley , to the solitary deserts, to the diversity of the Sinai desert , to the lush oases, to the exotic underwater life of the Red Sea , to the Mediterranean beaches. "Now, let me talk more of Egypt for it has a lot of admirable things and what one sees there is superior to any other country." - Herodotus, 50 BCE
Even though much of what Herodotus witnessed has been ruined by the cruelty of later generations, his statement is still valid to this day. Today's Egyptians have abandoned their ancient heritage for a mostly Moslem Arabic-speaking nation. Happily, they have maintained their friendly, hospitable, and warm characteristics.
Cairot , the capital is the place to start. It has the Pyramids, the Sphinxs, the Egyptian Museum, many more sights and more than ten million cairenes to share the experience. Alexandria , the two hundreth city of the country has its fare share of historic sights as well and with its location on the Mediterranean it is an ideal spot for your holidays.
The north of Egypt has many impressive temples and graves from Pharaonic times. Luxor , Aswan and Abu Simbel should all be on your to do list.
The Nile River has great scuba diving : Hurghada is world famous for its under water  
Egypt Travel guide

Egypt History

Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. However the Nile valley forms a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the, south by the Cataracts of the Nile, to the north by the sea and east and west by deserts. Egypt is one of ancient civilizations in the world extending to several millennia BC, It was the Pharaoh Menes who united the 2 kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, inaugurating what came to be known as the Ancient Empire.
Ramses II was other Pharaoh too. Ramses II was to the control from 1279 to 1212 BC and is known for his rising temples, statues, prodigious buildings and other monuments throughout Egypt. Between his major achievements was the signing of the first Peace Treaty to be recorded in history, concluded between Egypt and the Hitites.
History of ancient Egypt: Historians divide Egyptian civilization into 4 Periods, the Old, Middle, New, and the Late Kingdoms. These eras are separated from each another by, respectively, the First, Second, and Third Intermediate periods. During these times the political divisions of Middle and Upper Egypt broke apart under the influence of weak rulers, fragmenting the central government and disrupting the administrative authority of the country.

The more than 3000 year long history of Ancient Egypt has been divided into 8 or 9 periods, sometimes called Kingdoms. The history of ancient Egypt began around 3100 BC when Egypt became a unified Egyptian state, but archaeological evidence indicates that a developed society had formed much earlier. It survived as an independent state until about 343 BC.

In that time, the Ancient Egyptians seem to have developed the notion of dynasties throughout their history. Also, The Palermo Stone simply lists the kings one after the other, without any apparent need of grouping them. The Turin Kinglist, which is more recent, has grouped the kings according to their origin or descendance.

It had 30 dynasties as we use it now to Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived at the beginning of the Ptolemaic Era. In several cases, but really, it is not clear why Manetho has grouped some kings into one dynasty and other kings into another. The 18th Dynasty, for instance, begin with Ahmose, a brother of the last king in Manetho's 17th Dynasty. Theoretically, Kamose and Ahmose should thus have been grouped in the same dynasty. Thutmosis I, on the other hand, does not appear to have been related to his predecessor, Amenhotep I, but still both kings are grouped in the 18th Dynasty.

Maybe some Egyptologists have attempted to abandon the notions of dynasties and Kingdoms. Actually the visitors may, also, notice that the timeline below and the timescale used throughout The Ancient Egypt Site may be somewhat different from some of the other books or web sites they have consulted.

However also visitors should also be aware that, as is the case with any publication dealing with Ancient Egypt, dates are approximations and should not be taken literally. In several cases it's not known just how long a king may have governed. Comparing diverse publications on the chronology and history of Ancient Egypt, the visitors may also notice that one king may be credited with a fairly short reign in one publication and a fairly long in another. This impacts the absolute chronology, that is to say, Egyptian history using our year numbering.

Getting Around Egypt

The infrastructure for tourists and travellers is good. There are no problems finding space in shared taxis, trains or buses. Normally these are both frequent and cheap. The Shared taxis and Buses cover more destinations than trains, and are often more pleasant to use, even when they run parallel service to the railways. Habitually the trains are best in cases where you travel overnight, and want to be able to sleep.

By Bus: Normally Air conditioned buses link most parts of Egypt to Alexandria and Cairo. Also seats may be reserved up to 2 days in advance. There is also bus more cheap but non-air-conditioned. However although bus times may change without notice, departures are so frequent that schedule changes are not a problem.

By Rail: The Egyptian State Railway is founded in 1851 which services the entire Nile Valley down to Aswan, the Red Sea cities of Suez and Port Said, the Delta and Northern Coast cities of Alexandria (2 stops) and Mersa Matruh. Also there are at least half a dozen through trains a day on major routes. Fares are inexpensive, but unless one is traveling with a tour, tickets must be purchased at the main railway stations (in Cairo at the Ramses Station at Midan Ramses).

From the Airport: Mainly the airports in Egypt have a taxi service to town centers, operated on a flat fee basis (ask your airlines). Also, In Cairo transport includes bus, limousine and taxi. The limousine service is offered by Misr Limousine, telephone: 259-9381.

Official Cairo taxis are actually black and white, but in Alexandria taxis are black and orange. There are also Peugeot taxis in a several colors and sizes, but they all have an emblem and number painted on the driver's door. Fees are the same as the limousine service.

The Airport Bus Service operates from Terminal 1. The bus leaves when full and stops at Midan Tahrir in downtown Cairo, in Mohandeseen, and along Pyramids Road in Giza. There are also regular town buses but they are not recommended for they are often too crowded for foreigners.

Getting There Egypt

By Air: Air Egypt is served by international airports at Cairo, Luxor, Hurghada and Alexandria on the mainland, and at Sharm el Shaykh on the Sinai peninsula. The largest and most active airport is located in Cairo.

The main gateway airport: Cairo International.:
** Check in time: Recommended 2 hours for international flights.
** Airport to City: Airport bus approximately 60 minutes. Taxi approximately 60 minutes.
• Air Algerie (to/from Algiers).
• Al Italia (to/from Rome).
• Air Ukraine (to/from Kiev).
• Balkan Airlines (to/from Sofia).
• Cyprus Airlines (to/from Larnaca).
• Czeck Airlines (to/from Prague).

There are non stop flights from most major North America, European towns, African and Asian. Airline tickets must be confirmed before departure. Check with a travel agent in your hotel or contact the airline office in Cairo. Most major airlines have offices at the Cairo International Airport and downtown in and around Midan Tahrir.

By Land:
From Sudan: There is only twice weekly steamer that ferries cars the length of Lake Nasser, from Wadi Halfa in the Sudan to Aswan in Egypt. Information is available from the Nile Navigation Company Limited, Ramses Square ( in the train station), and Nile Maritime Agency, 8 Quasr el Nil, both in Cairo; and the Nile Company for River Transport, 7 Atlas Building, Aswan. All arrangements to enter Sudan, including visas, must be made in Cairo.
From Libya: Provided you have a visa, crossing the one border point to Libya, north at Sallum, should be easy, but prepare for a long wait. This journey is done either by bus, or by car. The exit fee is not more than US$0,50.

From Jordan: There are ferries connecting Aqaba in Jordan, and Nuwayba in Egypt. The journey takes around 6 hours, and covers only 70 km. The price is steep too, close to USD30 if you go from Egypt, or USD20 if you embark in Aqaba. It should be possible to bring a car on this ferry, but my reports on this are fluid. The exit fee is not more than US$0,50.

When to go Egypt?

Take into account holidays when arranging your itinerary. However, like in nobody of Muslim countries, businesses close on Fridays. Also, close during the afternoon on holidays, but are normally open in the morning. The most important event is Ramadan, the annual month long fast during which Muslims abstain from drink and food from dawn to dusk. In this time, several restaurants are closed until sundown, shops may be open for a few hours in the morning and a short time after iftar, the breaking of the fast.
To take into account, Egypt’s high and low seasons depend partly on the region:
• Cairo is a year-round mob scene, while summertime is party time in Alexandria and on the Mediterranean and Red Sea beaches.
• In the Sinai, Oases, and Upper Egypt, reasonable temperatures make winter the high season, but younger travelers revel in summertime bargains despite the extreme heat.
• In southern Egypt, summer temperatures often reach 49°C (120°F) and can push 55°C (131°F). Fortunately, it’s dry—your body’s cooling system should know what to do. Winter brings perfect weather across the country.
• In arid Cairo, pollution makes summer afternoons hellish. Alexandria is temperate year-round, though quite humid. The Red Sea coast is comfortably warm in winter and hot but dry in summer; higher elevations in the Sinai can be freezing in winter and on summer nights.

Red Tape & Visas

Passports and visas : Usually the visitors or travellers to Egypt must hold passports that are valid for at least 6 months beyond the proposed date of entry to the country. However almost all Europeans, plus all New Zealanders and North Americans and Australians, must also obtain tourist visas. Visa costs vary according to nationality with visas to U.S. and GCC citizens the least expensive. Several consulates issue visas within the same day and some take several days to complete formalities. Visitors visas are for stays of one month in duration. Multiple entry visas allow for only three visits to Egypt within this period.
Passport precautions: It is very recommendable, Once in Egypt , you should always carry your passport with you: you'll need it to register at hotels, change money, collect mail, and possibly to show at police checkpoints.

Who requires a Visa?: Either a tourist or a student visa may be required, depending on length of study and nationality. Usually, tourist visas for Egypt can often be obtained upon arrival in Egypt, for citizens of most countries (It's highly recommended to confirm visa particulars with the appropriate consulate). However, several citizens of the following countries are required to be in possession of a pre-arrival visa: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Croatia, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Macedonia, Malaysia, Montenegro, Pakistan, Palestine, The Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Thailand, Ukraine and all African countries.
The cost of a visa is aprox. US$15-$91, depending on nationality and also is valid for Tourist visas: 30-180 days, Student visas: Varies
The required documents are:
• Passport (passport must have at least 6 months validity remaining)
• 1 recent passport-type photograph (2in. X 2in.)
• Completed application form
• Copy of airline tickets or itinerary
Please contact the nearest Egyptian Consulate for further information on what documentation may be required for you to enter Egypt.
Egyptian embassies and consulates abroad: For visa applications in person, submit your passport and application in the morning and collect the visa the same afternoon (applications cannot be submitted then). If You need one list of Egyptian embassies can visit www.embassyworld.com/embassy/Egypt/Egypt1.html

Communications in Egypt

Post office : hours are generally daily except Fri 8am to 2pm (Ramadan 9am to 3pm), however central offices may stay open until 8pm. Almost invariably, offices are closed on Fridays. Airmail letters between Western Europe and Egypt generally take around a week to 10 days, 2 to 3 weeks to Australasia or North America.
Phones: Several cities have at least one 24 hour telephone and telegraph office, for calling long distance and abroad. Several of these feature orange direct-dial phones that take phonecards, the cost between (£E15, £E20 or £E30), enabling you to avoid the old system of booking calls through the exchange.
Mobile Phone Codes:
Click GSM (GSM 900) 010 + 7 digits, MobiNil (GSM 900) 012 + 7 digits
The Media: As for other means of staying in touch, various British, US, German and French newspapers are available in Aswan, Luxor Cairo and Alexandria, as are Newsweek and Time magazines. Elsewhere, however, you'll be lucky to find even the Egyptian Gazette. If you have a short-wave radio, you can pick up the BBC World Service , which is broadcast on 639KHz at 8.45am-noon, 3 to 5pm and 7 to 9pm; and on 1320KHz from 9pm to 3am (all local time).
Reception is best in the north. The Voice of America broadcasts 24 hours on numerous frequencies on the AM (medium wave) or short wavebands.
Mail: To have mail sent to you, it should be addressed (usually with your surname underlined and/or highlighted) to Poste Restante at the central post office. To pick up mail, you'll need your passport.


Costs, Money And Banks

Once you've arrived, Egypt is an inexpensive and good value destination, except perhaps for Hurghad and Sinai, which are pricier than other parts of Egypt. As a rule, though, providing you avoid luxury hotels or tourist only services, costs for food, transport and accommodation low by European standards. Actually the rate of exchange currently stands at about 5 Egyptian pounds to one pound sterling, and just over 3 Egyptian pounds to 1 US dollar.
If you need more info of Exchange rates visit:
Central bank of egypt
Blom Bank Egypt
Piraeus Bank Egypt
Money: Egypt's basic unit of currency is the Egyptian pound (called a ginay in Arabic, and written as LE or £E). It has a rate approx. of US$1 = £E3.41, while floating against other hard currencies, whose exchange rates fluctuate.

It is very easy to distinguish between £E notes since they bear Arabic numerals on one side, Western numerals on the other, and are colour coded: Example, £E1 (brown), £E5 (blue), £E10 (red), £E20 (green), £E50 (red), £E100 (green). Usually the £E100 is never used in everyday life.

The Egyptian pound is divided into 100 piastres, called irsh in Arabic or abbreviated pt. There are 10pt, 25pt and 50pt notes, and variously sized coins to the value of 5pt, 10pt, 20pt, 25pt and 50pt; some 25pt coins have a hole in the middle.

American Express: It has many offices in Cairo and branches in Aswan, Ismailiya, Luxor and Alexandria. All of them can hold client mail and cash Amex travellers' cheques, paying out in Egyptian pounds. Money may be wired to any branch, most of which also allow Amex cardholders to buy travellers' cheques, or cash personal cheques.

American Express Office:
• Cairo (downtown): 15 Sharia Qasr el-Nil (telephone 02/574-7991 and fax 578-4003; Nile Hilton (tel 02/578-5001 and fax 578-5003).
• Aswan : c/o Old Cataract Hotel (telephone and fax 097/302-909).
• Ismailiya : c/o Menatours, 12 Sharia Sultan Hussein (telephone 064/324-361).
• Luxor : c/o Winter Palace Hotel (telephone and fax 095/372-862).
• Alexandria : 34 El Moaskar El Romani, Roushdy (telephone 03/541-0177 and fax 545-7363).

Egypt Arabic Language

Usually the people who visit Egypt have little problems with communications because those working in the tourist sector are normally adept in at least many different languages. Habitually, most of them speak some English, and many of them fluently. French is also a traditional language, but so too is German and Italian. However less common, are the Spanish, Chinese, Japanese and Russian languages, but of course there are specialized guides that are also fluent in most any language, who accompany various tours.
However, if one escapes the confines of a tour group and ventures out into normal Egyptian neighborhoods, some command of the local language of Egypt is very helpful. Upscale restaurants, shops and other establishments will normally have multilingual personnel, but several common Egyptians one comes into contact with may only have such communication skills.
The official language of Egypt is the Egyptian dialect of Modern Arabic. Today, Arabic ranks as the sixth most common language with an estimated 186 million native speakers. Furthermore, as the language of the Qur'an, the holy book of Islam, it is also widely understood throughout the Muslim world, even in countries where Arabic is not the native language. The Egyptian colloquial Arabic is spoken by some 50 million people, mostly in Egypt.
For example:• inta/inti aarif il-inglezi? = "Do you (male/female) know English?".
• jim is pronounced g instead of j.
However, the Arabic Language is written from right to left. It has its own alphabet, different from the Roman alphabet used for English.
For communication purposes while travelling and using this guide, it is very important to note that Arabic is divided into Classic Arabic (mostly used in print) and Colloquial Arabic.
If You want learn Arabic Language, can visit:
Arabic Language Center in Cairo
learn Arabic in Cairo
Arabic Courses
Learn Egyptin Arabic
Courses Arabic

Business in Egypt
Egypt Real Estate :
Thousands of homes are sold every year, and the vast majority of these sales involve the work of an estate agent. Here's our guide to getting the best from your agent.

"Real Estate Agent" is just another name for "Salesperson"
Don't ever lose sight of that fact. Their only mission is to sell, sell, sell to you. Don't ever let on that you are in a desperate situation, or that you need to buy a house fast, or that you are in a desperate crunch to buy this house now, because you are being transferred into town this week. It's simply none of their business and as far as they are concerned, you are not in a rush to buy a house.

What estate agents do Estate agents are the 'arrangers' of the property world, carrying out three main functions: valuing, advertising and negotiating.
They decide how much a home is worth, based on an understanding of the local property market and consideration of the fixtures and fittings.
They make sure that potential buyers know of the sale by advertising and providing details, or 'particulars'.
They act as the go-between for buyers and sellers communicating offers and counter-offers between the two parties.

Getting the best from your estate agent
When you're looking for an estate agent, ask among friends for recommendations, and take a look at the boards in the area in which you're planning to buy. Also, have a look at the local press to see who advertises - it will give you an idea of how busy they are.

Estate agents are self-regulated, working under codes of conduct regulated by their professional bodies. Look for agents who are members of organisations such as the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and the National Association of Estate Agents. Some, although not all, agents are also members of the Ombudsman for Estate Agents (OEA) Scheme which guarantees that if you have problems with your agent, you will have a right of redress. Look for the OEA badge on their details.

Although estate agents are usually working on behalf of the seller, they still have certain duties to all buyers.
They must not mislead buyers about the nature of the property in the particulars that they provide.
They must treat all buyers fairly, and should not hold back offers in cases where a buyer has refused to use their services.
When you make an offer, the agent must pass a written copy to the seller, unless they have specified otherwise (for example, that they will not consider offers below a certain amount).

Moving to Egypt

Documents required<
- Passport (original) – (If issued within last two years the old passport is also required)
- Work Permit for non-egyptn citizens
- Baggage Declaration Form C-18 signed by customer
- Bank Release
- Inventory in English, valued and detailed showing the number of packages and in triplicate
- Insurance Certificate
- Invoices for electrical items and serial numbers
- Certificate of change of address
Dutiable/Restricted Items
- Alcoholic beverages
- New items (may require Import License and are subject to payment of Customs duties and taxes)
- Fabric pieces
- Trade goods or goods for sale or disposed to other persons
- Aircraft and vessels of all kinds
- Used machinery
- All computers whether new or old (except under diplomatic status) or unless imported by a student who is studying computer studies
Prohibited Items
- Weapons, silencers, ammunitions, toy guns and explosives, including tear gas
- Firearms require a certificate to be issued by Nairobi Firearms Bureau for import
- Plants, seeds, bulbs, fresh fruit and vegetables (unless a permit is obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture stating plants are free from disease)
- Pornographic material
- Drugs
- Political literature

MBA programs

Why MBA programs?
Earning a Masters of Business Administration (MBA) degree, can provide you with management skills and business expertise that open new career opportunities to you. If you are working in business and are lookin to move up the ladder or to move from your current area of expertise to a new one, an MBA program can help you achieve your goals. An MBA program will also launch you into the much higher pay range that upper level managers and executives enjoy. Furthermore, in the high-level positions an MBA degree will allow you to hold, your work will often be more interesting and rewarding. Now, m

ore and more MBA programs provide training that goes beyond general business management to provide subject area expertise. So, for example, if your career interests are in the field of e-commerce, you can find MBA programs with a strong focus in that area.
In addition, many MBA programs will allow you to earn joint degrees, so you can combine business administration training with training in another field, like law, health, or even social work.

Insurance in Egypt

All to often we speak with insurance consumers that don't fully understand the industry or the products that are available. Consumers understand deductibles and generally co insurance percentages if they have any and the rest is somewhat of a mystery.
To educate and give you non biased information on Life, Auto, and Homeowners Insurance. Hopefully, we will shed some light on some questions you may have and give you information you didn't even know you needed.

It's very important to understand what your buying or what kind of policy you already have. It's pretty regular we see people who couldn't even tell what deductible they have on their current policy. A lot of consumers purchase an insurance policy and when it comes in the mail, it gets filed away and never even looked at.

It's very important you review all insurance policies for accuracy. Accuracy on your information you gave the agent and information you were given at the time of purchase. Make sure the policy is what you remember buying. We've heard of cases where the policy arrived totally different from what the individual thought they were buying. That's why it's good to check these things out.

We sincerely thank you for stopping by and hope you find information that will help you when you need it.

Languages in Egypt 

The major languages used in Egypt at this time were Egyptian, Greek, and Latin. The most population of Egypt have like language the Arabic, a Semitic tongue. In 1971 constitution declares Arabic to be Egypt's official language. The dialects are different from region to region and even from city to city. However, english and French are spoken by most educated Egyptians and by shopkeepers and others.

The Ancient Egyptian language had a diverse vocabulary and precise syntax. It was written in Hieroglyphs and hieratic and demotic scripts. Egyptians tried to write their language using Greek letters, which became known as Coptic. Coptic was later replaced by the Arabic language. Kufic and Naskh scripts evolved as Arabic became the national language of Egypt.

The Ancient Egyptian language belongs to the Afro Asiatic family, but it began to take form before the Asian and African.

Coptic Script: Ancient Egyptian was adapted into Coptic when it began to be written with Greek alphabetic signs and 7 demotic signs to represent sounds that were not found in Greek.

Hieratic Script: Hieratic script was a cursive style of writing that was used mainly for religious texts. Surviving hieratic texts generally show careful calligraphy for literary or religious texts and very cursive shorthand for rapid writing.

Islamic Scripts: The Arabic writing split into different styles, Naskh and Kufic inscription. Kufic was the first to be used to transcribe the Qur'an. Naskh script was very artistic and was used on famous mosques

Egypt Health

Several tourists and travellers have health concerns when travelling in other countries and these normally revolve around the cleanliness of the water, the safety of the food, potential illnesses and the standard of hospital care. Public hospitals and chemists are open to tourists. Health insurance is strongly advised.

In Egypt, everything is quite safe except, sometimes, the tap water, which you can drink as the water in Egypt is highly chlorinated. But, this water is only safe to drink if you are used to it, and if you are willing to live in Egypt for a long time, this doesn't mean that the tap water is polluted, it simply means that you are not used to it.

Yellow Fever: Usually the passengers from yellow fever infected countries may be detained in the airport if they do not have a vaccination certificate.
Special Precaution: No
Certificate: 1

Malaria: Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes. You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.
Special Precaution: 4
Certificate: N/A

Typhoid and Hepatitis A are spread through contaminated food and water. Typhoid causes septicaemia and hepatitis A causes liver inflammation and jaundice. The best prevention is one good hygiene.

Hepatitis B is spread through infected blood, contaminated needles and sexual intercourse, It affects the liver, causes jaundice and occasionally liver failure. Those visiting high risk areas for long periods or at social or occupational risk should be immunised.

If you need help, can visit:
Hospital in Cairo
The Behman Hospital
Al Noor Hospital

What to do?

Monuments & Temples

Egypt s iconic buildings are among the oldest in the world and yet technically far superior to many more recent structures. one says that the most common theory for moving large blocks is to slide logs under the large stones to make mobility easier. Discover the true history inside giant burial mounds, who built the pyramids, their different styles and why they were built.

Around of the 19th century, The price of admission to the monuments of Egypt skyrocketed, and entry costs now form a significant part of travel expenses. At major sites like the Theban Necropolis you could spend £20 or US$30, taking into account such costly one offs as Tutankhamun's tomb and the tomb of Nefertari - not to mention extra charges for the right to take photos inside tombs, or use a video camera. However, visitors qualify for 50 percent reductions on the price of admission tickets (but not photo permits) if they can present an ISIC student card or Go-25 card.
Some Monuments, Temples & Chapels:• Abu Simbel Nubia• Amada, Temple of Nubia• Aten, Great Temple of Amarna
• Dakka, Temple of Nubia• Hercules, Temple of Bahariya Oasis• Horus, Temple of Edfu• Luxor, Temple of Luxor
• The Temple of Abydos• The Temple of Seti I• The Karnak Temple • The Pyramids of Giza

Golf Courses

Egypt is a predominantly desert terrain, however has a number of fine, lush green championship golf courses, with backdrops that defy the imagination.

The Golf is the fastest emerging sport in Egypt and courses are opening all the time and all days. Normally they have facilities outposts, luxurious clubhouses, top class amenities, 5 star service and perfect weather conditions, all the ingredients needed to master the sport and create an experience to be remembered.

The players can practice golf at dawn by the Red Sea, play a round near the Sinai Mountains, or also on the Pyramids of Giza. Currently there are over 10 world class championship golf clubs and clubhouses around the country, in recent years it has popular holiday destinations in Luxor, the Sinai, Peninsula and the Red Sea.

The latest recent is Golf City Club House with its 18 hole championship course which recently opened to the public. Managed by Movenpick Hotels and Resorts, Golf City Club is located around of Cairo, just 15 minutes drive from Cairo International Airport or 45 minutes from the city centre.

It even has Part of a large urban area still undergoing development, the town is set to comprise villas, a hotel, a large retail mall, games arcade, a professional sports club and an official football association to be managed by an Italian football club. A further eleven 18-hole championship courses are currently in their layout stages and are scheduled for completion within the next couple of years. Due to the popularity of Soma Bay’s Cascades Golf Resort and Country Club, Steigenberger Golf and Fitness Club in El Gouna and Sharm El Sheikh’s Movenpick Golf Resort, the only beach courses in Egypt the majority of courses are concentrated in the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea Coast.
List of main Golf Courses in Egypt:
Jollie Ville Sharm El Sheikh Golf Resort Sharm El Sheikh
Katameya Heights Golf Course (Katameya, Cairo) New Cairo
The Mena House Oberoi GolfCourse(Giza) Giza
Pyramids Golf&Country Club (35 kms from Cairo) NearCairo
Royal Valley Golf Club Luxor
The Cascades GolfResort Soma Bay (40 Km south of Hurghada) South of Hurghada

Eating in Egypt

Egyptian food combines elements of French, Syrian, Greek, Turkish, Greek and Lebanese cuisines, modified to suit local conditions and tastes. However, dishes tend to be simple and wholesome, made only with fresh ingredients, and therefore vary with the seasons. In Egypt, dining out can range from stand up sandwich bars to luxurious 5 course meals. Also, You can find small, inexpensive establishments that serve good Egyptian food for only a few pounds.

If you're in a hurry, try the local snack bars. While the cubbyholes off the street (which probably have running water) are generally safe. The larger cities even have Western style fast-food chains like McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken, but they're relatively expensive.

Restaurants: In Egypt, as in the rest of the world, the restaurants are only as good as the cooks they employ, and cooks seem to be continually changing. However the classic Egyptian restaurant or café meal is either a lamb kebab or kofta (spiced mince patties), accompanied or preceded by a couple of dips.

Also several establishments use native ingredients and will offer fruits and vegetables in season. In large restaurants, the maitre d'hotel will speak German, English, and possible French, Greek or Italian. These establishments serve a mixture of international cuisine but often include Egyptian or Middle Eastern fare as well.

Vegetarian eating: Several Egyptians eat vegetables most of the time and meat or fish are seen as luxuries. But, the concept of vegetarianism is totally incomprehensible to most people, and you'll be hard pushed to exclude meat stock from your diet. If you do get across the idea that you "don't eat meat", normally you can to replace the meat by the fish or chicken.

Fruits: In Egypt are seasonal and wonderful. In winter there are oranges, bananas and pomegranates, followed by strawberries in March. In summer you get plums, grapes, peaches, mangoes and melons, plus a brief season (Aug and Sept) of prickly pears. All are readily available at street stalls, or can be drunk as juices at juice bars.

Work & Study

The city of Cairo have habitually, work possibilities for teaching English as a foreign language, modelling or journalism, while the American University in Cairo is a rewarding if expensive place to study Arabic, Middle Eastern affairs or Egyptology. Also, you might find work as a tour rep or salesperson at one of the main resorts, as a diving instructor in Hurghada or Sinai, or a belly dancer in a hotel nightclub.

Journalism: The town of Cairo has been the center for several journalistic careers, because is easy to place work with the local English language media. Egypt actually takes photos and travel articles, while the Egyptian Gazette may need subeditors from time to time. International press agencies may also accept material and possibly employ stringers.
Teaching English: Actually there are work in Cairo or Alexandria, where there are several private language schools, generally catering to adults. There is quite a big market for people wanting to learn both conversational and business English.

You can visit the British Council, 192 Corniche el-Nil, Aguza, Cairo (tel 02/344-8445). Alexandria (tel 03/482-0199, e-mail: hala.Rizk@eg.britcoun.org). An RSA TEFL certificate is required for jobs at the British Council, who recruit most of their staff in Britain (head office: 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1; tel 020/7930 8466).

Studying: The American University in Cairo, offers year abroad and non-degree programmes, a summer school and intensive Arabic courses. A full year's tuition costs roughly US$12,000. US citizens may apply to the Stafford Loan Program.

Foreign students may also attend 1 or 2 term programmes at 3 Egyptian universities: Al-Azhar, Ain Shams and Cairo. These are valid for transferable credits at most American and some British universities. In the US, contact the Egyptian Cultural, 1303 New Hampshire Ave NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel 202/296-3888).

Acting and modelling: Westerners are often required as extras in TV shows, Egyptian films or advertisements. Not is necessary to be a professional model, nor are you paid like one: this is simply a day-to-day job. for about £E40-50 a day. You can make contact with agents at the New Sun Café in Cairo. Women should keep their wits about them - and preferably a male escort.

Egypt Islam

Egypt is a republic with Islam as the state religion. Approximately, 90% of Egyptians are Sunni Muslims, several of whom follow local Sufi orders, and a small number are Shi'a. The majority of the population are Christians, and other percentage whom belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church. There are doubts regarding the real number of Copts but the 2006 World Factbook estimates that they constitute around of 7.6 million or 10% of the Egyptian population. Christians are geographically dispersed throughout the country, although the percentage of Christians tends to be higher in upper (southern) Egypt and some sections of Alexandria and Cairo.

Before of the invasion of Napoleon, almost all the educational, public health, legal and social welfare issues were in the hands of religious functionaries.

Ottoman rule reinforced the public and political roles of the ulama (religious scholars), because Islam was the state religion and because political divisions in the country were based on religious divisions. During the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. The secular transformation of public life in Egypt depended on the development of a civil bureaucracy that would absorb many of the ulama's responsibilities in the country.

When, I finish the revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques and religious schools. The government mandated reform of Azhar University beginning in 1961. These reforms permitted department heads to be drawn from outside the ranks of the traditionally trained orthodox ulama.

Attitudes & Behaviour

If you want a trip to Egypt, it's vital not to assume that anyone who approaches you expects to profit from the encounter. However several tourists do, and end up making little contact with an extraordinarily friendly people.

Behaviour and attitude: If some Egyptians treat tourists with contempt, is recommendable to give help, thus your you can avoid rudeness or aggressive behaviour in response to insistent offers or demands. Another thing to take into account is, of the importance of dress, shorts are socially acceptable only at beach resorts (and for women only in private resorts or along the Aqaba coast), shirts (for both sexes) should cover your shoulders. Many tourists ignore these conventions, unaware of how it demeans them in the eyes of the Egyptians.

Photography: If you are obviously taking a photograph of someone, ask their permission, especially in the more remote, rural regions where you can cause negative impressions. Also, You can find people more beautiful with who you can interchange photos. However, be wary of photographing anything militarily sensitive (train stations, bridges, dams, etc). When invited to a home, it is normal to take your shoes off before entering the reception rooms. It's customary to take a gift, sweet pastries (or tea and sugar in rural areas) are always acceptable. At a communal meal, never use the left hand unless others are doing so.

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